1Student Resaerch Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2Nutrition Resrach Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Background: Depression is a worldwide disease affecting more than 300 million people and is associated with disability, burden of disease, and significant health care costs. Children’s nutritional status can definitely affect their growth. The burden of malnutrition remains high in developing countries and reduces the potential for individual, social, and economic development. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding depression and infant’s growth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 90 breastfeeding mothers and their 2-4 month old infants in Yasuj. Data collection in mothers was done by measuring anthropometric variables and by interviews through questionnaires. For assessing maternal depression, Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire was applied, and neonatal physical growth was evaluated by head circumference, weight, and length Z-scores of 2-4 months old infants. Results: The result showed that the relationship between maternal depression score and Z scores of infants’ weight, height, and head circumference was not significant (P>0.05 for all). There were no differences between depression scores of mothers and infants’ growth in different groups of education or occupation among mothers (P>0.05 for all). There was a significant relationship between maternal waist circumference with hip circumference, weight, and number of children (P<0.001 for all). Conclusion: This study showed that depressed mothers, despite having depression, were concerned with the optimal growth of their infants. However, tracking children’s developmental status and maternal depression over the time (especially in depressed mothers or underweight infants) in several stages can be helpful in increasing information in this regard.
Li Z, Wang W, Xin X, Song X, Zhang D. Association of total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes with depression in the US adults. J Affect Disord. 2018;228:68-74. doi: 1016/j.jad.2017.12.004; PMID:29232566.
Sharmin KN, Sarwar N, Mumu SJ, Taleb DA, Flora MS. Postnatal depression and infant growth in an urban area of Bangladesh. Midwifery. 2019;74:57-67. doi: 1016/j.midw.2019.03.014; PMID: 30927633.
Ghimire S, Baral BK, Feng D, Sy FS, Rodriguez R. Is selenium intake associated with the presence of depressive symptoms among US adults? Findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. Nutrition. 2019;62:169-76.doi: 1016/j.nut.2018.12.007; PMID: 30921553.
Salehi-Abargouei A, Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L, Keshteli AH, Afshar H, Feizi A, et al. Do patterns of nutrient intake predict self-reported anxiety, depression and psychological distress in adults? SEPAHAN study. Clin. Nutr. 2019;38(2):940-7. doi: 1016/j.clnu.2018.02.002; PMID: 29503058.
UNICEF, WHO, World Bank. Levels and Trends in Child Malnutrition. Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. New York, NY: United Nations International Children’s Fund; Geneva: WHO; Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012. Available from: http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/estimates/en/
Kuchenbecker J, Jordan I, Reinbott A, Herrmann J, Jeremias T, Kennedy G, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding and its effect on growth of Malawian infants: results from a cross-sectional study. Paediatr int child health. 2015;35(1):14-23. doi: 1179/2046905514Y.0000000134; PMID: 25005815; PMCID: PMC4280265.
Farías-Antúnez S, Xavier MO, Santos IS. Effect of maternal postpartum depression on offspring's growth. J Affect Disord. 2018;228:143-52. doi: 1016/j.jad.2017.12.013; PMID: 29248820.
Wemakor A, Mensah KA. Association between maternal depression and child stunting in Northern Ghana: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health. 2016;16(1):1-7. doi: 1186/s12889-016-3558-z; PMID: 27557725; PMCID: PMC4997709.
Lovejoy MC, Graczyk PA, O'Hare E, Neuman G. Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2000;20(5):561-92. doi: 1016/S0272-7358(98)00100-7; PMID: 10860167.
Rahman A, Harrington R, Bunn J. Can maternal depression increase infant risk of illness and growth impairment in developing countries? Child: Care Health Dev. 2002;28(1):51-6. doi: 1046/j.1365-2214. 2002.00239.x; PMID: 11856187.
Edwardson CL, Gorely T. Parental influences on different types and intensities of physical activity in youth: A systematic review. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2010;11(6):522-35. doi: 1016/j.psychsport.2010.05.001.
Surkan PJ, Patel SA, Rahman A. Preventing infant and child morbidity and mortality due to maternal depression. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;36:156-68. doi: 1016/j.bpobgyn.2016.05.007; PMID: 27422745.
Surkan PJ, Kennedy CE, Hurley KM, Black MM. Maternal depression and early childhood growth in developing countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89:607-15. doi:2471/BLT.11.088187; PMID: 21836759; PMCID: PMC3150769.
Anato A, Baye K, Tafese Z, Stoecker BJ. Maternal depression is associated with child undernutrition: A cross‐sectional study in Ethiopia. Matern Child Nutr. 2020;16(3):e12934. doi: 1111/mcn.12934; PMID: 31833231; PMCID: PMC7296785.