|Background: Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) has been used to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. This plant has also exerted anti-proliferative effects on certain cancer types. The present study aimed to determine the effects of carob bean extracts on proliferation and apoptotic genes (Bax, Bcl-2, and P53) and Caspase-3, -8, and -9 expressions of human prostate cancer cell lines.|
Method: In this in vitro experimental study, human prostate cell lines (LNCaP and PC3) were treated with carob bean extract (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 µg/ml) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cell viability was investigated via MTT assay. The genes expression: Bax (pro-apoptotic), Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic), Caspase-3 (required enzyme for the execution of apoptosis), Caspase-8 (mediator of the extrinsic pathway), and Caspase-9 (mediator of the intrinsic pathway) genes as well as P53 (tumor suppressor) were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, the nitric oxide in culture media was evaluated.
Results: Carob bean extract suppressed the proliferation of prostate cancer cells in a time and dose-dependent manner by inducing intrinsic apoptotic pathways and decreasing nitric oxide production (P <0.01). The obtained results revealed the overexpression of Caspases-3 and -9, P53, and Bax, but reduction in Bcl-2 expression, giving rise to a higher Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (P <0.05).
Conclusion: The carob bean extracts exerted anti-prostate cancer properties via induction of apoptosis. It could be also suggested as a dietary supplement for patients suffering from prostate cancer.
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