|Background: Several studies have investigated supplement and drug use prevalence among elite athletes. However, nonelite athletes who exercise in gyms to improve their health and appearance have received less attention. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of supplement use in recreational athletes in Fars, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 256 recreational athletes (165 men and 91 women, mean age 28.67±7.28) completed the questionnaire (researcher-made), and the differential validity was estimated by the comparison of novice and elite athletes using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Moreover, the reliability of the instrument was confirmed based on internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and stability (repeatability) using test-retest (correlationcoefficient of the test scores). Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: In this study, 84% of the participants used various supplements, and 54% consumed performance-enhancing and occasional drugs. The most common supplements were multivitamins (77.7%), protein powders (69.1%), fish oil (47.9%), and vitamin D (39.9%). According to the findings, 46.8% of the subjects consumed supplements to improve their physical appearance, while 21.8% used these substances to enhance their health. Meanwhile, 62.2% of the athletes considered themselves fit (not obese/lean), while 31.1% and 33.3% tended to lose weight and slightly gain weight, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, the rate of consuming supplements, weight loss drugs, occasional drugs, and performance-enhancing drugs was high in the recreational athletes in Fars province, which indicated the necessity of more control and attention to the prevention of excess supplement use and raising awareness in this regard.|
- Gleaves J, Llewellyn M. Sport, drugs and amateurism: Tracing the real cultural origins of anti-doping rules in international sport. The international journal of the history of sport. 2014;31(8):839-53.
- Nakhaee M, Pakravan M. Prevalence and reasons for nutritional supplement use among athletes in body building gyms, Kerman 2012. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2014;12(11):873-80.
- Smith T, Fedoruk M, Eichner A. Performance-Enhancing Drug Use in Recreational Athletes. American Family Physician. 2021;103(4):203-4.
- Alidoust E, Mokhlesi S, Shariati J. Consumption And Awareness From Side Effects Of Doping Drugs And Weight Loss Drugs At Nonprofessional Athletes In Tehran Fitness Clubs. Sport Physiology & Management Investigations. 2017;9(3):113-26.
- Rashidlamir A, Dehbashi S, Taghizadeh S. Study the prevalence of legal and illegal supplements between athlete’s men in Bodybuilders and powerlifting field. Shomal J Manage Physiol Sport. 2014;2:1-11.
- Baker J, Graham M, Davies B. Steroid and prescription medicine abuse in the health and fitness community: A regional study. European journal of internal medicine. 2006;17(7):479-84.
- KURT AK. Birinci Basamakta Obezite Yönetimi. Klinik Tıp Aile Hekimliği. 2019;11(2):55-60.
- Pasharavesh L, Ramandi M, KHOUSHBOU S, REZAEI M, REZVANI S, ABBASI MR, et al. PREVALENCE OF DOPING AGENTS'ABUSE AND MALE BODYBUILDERS'KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THEIR SIDE EFFECTS IN KERMANSHAH GYMNASIUMS (2004). 2008.
- Ebrahimian Besharat M. The use of performance-enhancing substances amongst recreational gym users: investigating prevalence, knowledge, risk factors and attitudes toward doping. 2020.
- Sharif SI, Mohammed A, Mohammed I, Sharif RS. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and use of dietary supplements among people exercising in the gym in Sharjah-United Arab Emirates. Phys Med Rehabil Res. 2018;3(5):1-5.
- Halabchi F, Shab-Bidar S, Selk-Ghaffari M. Prevalence of supplement consumption in Iranian athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2021;12(1):32.
- Nakhostin-Roohi B, Asadi M. The prevalence, level of knowledge and methods of providing nutritional supplements among females participating in private sports clubs in the city of Ardabil, Iran. International Journal of Nutrition Sciences. 2018;3(1):18-24.
- Sobhanian S, Rajabian D, Sadeghi F, Parsayee Manesh E. Frequency of the use of anabolic drugs in bodybuilding athletes in Jahrom city. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. 2013;11(3):33-7.
- Sepehri G, Fard MM, Sepehri E. Frequency of anabolic steroids abuse in bodybuilder athletes in Kerman city. Addiction & health. 2009;1(1):25.
- HABIBI Y, PASHAEI T, NOURI B, SAHRAEI M. INVESTIGATION THE PREVALENCE OF USING PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN BODYBUILDERS MEN IN SANANDAJ CITY (2015). 2017.
- El Khoury D, Antoine-Jonville S. Intake of nutritional supplements among people exercising in gyms in Beirut city. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2012;2012.
- Tsitsimpikou C, Chrisostomou N, Papalexis P, Tsarouhas K, Tsatsakis A, Jamurtas A. The use of nutritional supplements among recreational athletes in Athens, Greece. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2011;21(5):377-84.
- Ruano J, Teixeira VH. Prevalence of dietary supplement use by gym members in Portugal and associated factors. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2020;17(1):1-8.
- Jawadi AH, Addar AM, Alazzam AS, Alrabieah FO, Al Alsheikh AS, Amer RR, et al. Prevalence of dietary supplements use among gymnasium users. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2017;2017.