|Background: This study aimed to investigate the impact of frequency and word length on the eye movements in dyslexic students while they were reading Persian textbooks.|
Methods: The method applied to this study was quasi-experimental. The statistical population consisted of 56 male and female students in first, second, and third grades, referring to Learning Disorder Centers of Educational Organization in 2 and 10 districts in Tehran. Twenty-five students with dyslexia were selected using the available sampling method (participants included 12 boys and 13 girls who were in second, third, fourth, and fifth grade with 6, 8, 8, and 3 students, respectively). The eye-tracking device, SMI-RED-120Hz, was used for data collection. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) method was applied to analyze the data.
Results: There are two significant findings: the effect of words' length on the number of fixation, fixation time, and the number of regression, as well as the effect of words' frequency on the number of fixation, fixation time, and the number of regressions.
Conclusion: Frequency and word length on fixation and regression play an important role in the process of reading in dyslexic students.
- Esmaeeli Z, Lundetra K, Kyle FE. What can Parents’ Self-report of Reading Difficulties Tell Us about Their Children’s Emergent Literacy at School Entry?. Dyslexia. 2018; 24:84-105.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-V (5th ed). Arlington: American Psychiatric. 2016.
- Ferguson K. Dyslexia Manifesto. In B. Arneil & N. Hirschmann (Eds.). Disability and Political Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/9781316694053.008. 2016; 123-143.
- Heidari T, Amiri S, Molavi H. The Efficacy of Davis Dyslexia Correction Program on Rereading Performance of students with Dyslexia. J. Appl. Psychol. 2012; 6(22):41-58.
- Moradi M, Faramarzi S, Abedi A. The Efficacy of Phoneme Plays on Reading Performance of Dyslectic Boy Students. J. Appl. Psychol. 2014; 15(55):44-51.
- Brooks AD, Berninger VW, Abbott RD. Letter naming and letter writing reversals in children with dyslexia: Momentary inefficiency in the phonological and or ethnographic loops of working memory. Dev. Neuropsychol. 2011; 36(7):84 -95.
- Taroyan NA, Nicolson RI, Fawcett AJ. Behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of dyslexia in the continuous performance task. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2007; 118(4):845-855.
- Fernández G, Shalom DE, Kliegl R, Sigman M. Eye movements during reading proverbs and regular sentences: The incoming word predictability effect. Lang. Cogn. Neurosci. 2014 ;29(3):260-273.
- Khaled MA. The effects of word frequency, text case, and contextual predictability on binocular fixation during reading [dissertation]. Bedfordshire Univ. 2016.
- Clifton C, Ferreira F, Henderson JM, Inhoff AW, Liversedge SP, Reichle ED, et al. Eye movements in reading and information processing: Keith Rayner’s 40 year legacy. J. Mem. Lang. 2016; 86:1-19.
- Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA. Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Dev. psychopathol. 2008; 20(04):1329-1349.
- Kormi Nouri R, Moradi A, Akbari Zardkhaneh A, Zahedian H. Reliability and Validity of Reading and Dyslexia Test (NEMA). Tehran: Tarbiat Moallem University Publication; 2008.
- Rayner K, Reichle ED, Stroud M, Williams CC, Pollatsek A. The effect of word frequency, word predictability, and font difficulty on the eye movements of young and older readers. Psychol Aging. 2006; 21(3):448-465.
- Azad Fallah N, Sharifi M, Heidari M. The effects of word length and font type on eye movement during reading familiar and unfamiliar passages. Contemp. Psychol. 2016; 11(2):67-80.
- Sharifi M, Ahmadi S, Mansouri Sepehr R. The effects of font type and level of familiarity with passage on fixation and regression during goal-oriented reading. J. Appl. Psychol. 2013; 7(26):61-76.
- Pollatsek A, Rayner K. Eye movement control in reading: The role of word boundaries. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1982; 8(6):817-833.
- Hyona J, Olson RK. Eye movement patterns among dyslexic and normal readers: Effects of word length and word frequency. J. Exp. Psychol.: Learn. Mem. Cogn. 1995; 21:1430-1440.
- Reichle ED, Rayner K, Pollatsek A. Eye movements in reading versus non-reading tasks: Using EZ Reader to understand the role of word/stimulus familiarity. Vis. cogn. 2012; 20(4-5):360-390.
- Beymer D, Russell D, Orton P. An eye tracking study of how font size and type influence online reading. Proceedings of the 22nd British HCI Group Annual Conference on HCI 2008: People and Computers XXII: Culture, Creativity, Interaction. 2008; 2:15-18.
- Just MA, Carpenter PA. Orthography: Its structure and effects on reading. The psychology of reading and language processing. 1987; 287-325.
- Goldberg JH. Eye Movement-Based Interface Evaluation: What can and can not be assessed? Proc. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. 2000; 44(37):625-628.
- Bijan Khan M, Mohseni M. Frequency Dictionary of Modern Persian text corpus. Tehran: Tehran University Publication. 2012.
- Al Dahhan NZ, Kirby JR, Brien DC, Munoz DP. Eye Movements and Articulations during a Letter Naming Speed Task: Children With and Without Dyslexia. J. Learn. Disabil. 2017; 50(3):275–285.
- Engbert R, Nuthmann A, Richter EM, Kliegl R. SWIFT: a dynamical model of saccade generation during reading. Psychol. Rev. 2005; 112(4):777-813.
- Rayner K. Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychol. Bull. 1998; 124(3):372-422.
- Tiffin-Richards SP, Schroeder S. Word length and frequency effects on children’s eye movements during silent reading. Vision Res. 2015; 113:33-43.
- Morris RK, Rayner K, Pollatsek A. Eye movement guidance in reading: The role of parafoveal letter and space information. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1990; 16(2):268-281.
- Sharifi M, Farahani H, Shahbazi F, Sharifi M, Kello CT. Zare M. Multifractality and non-Gaussianity of eye fixation duration time series in reading Persian texts. J. Phys. A Math. 2019; 549-562.
- Liversedge SP, Drieghe D, Li X, Yan G, Bai X, Hyönä J. Universality in eye movements and reading: A trilingual investigation. Cognition. 2016; 147:1-20.
- Wang HC, Pomplun M, Chen M, Ko H, Rayner K. Estimating the effect of word predictability on eye movements in Chinese reading using latent semantic analysis and transitional probability. Q J Exp Psychol. 2010; 63(7):1374-1386.